Separation of powers

A balancing political model

The Gabonese Republic is governed by the principles of national sovereignty, with separation of the executive, legislative and judicial powers, and the State of law.

The President of the Republic is the Head of State; he ensures that the Constitution is upheld; through arbitration, he guarantees the smooth running of the authorities and the continuity of the State. 

He is responsible for national independence, the country's integrity and compliance with agreements and treaties. 

In consultation with the government, he determines the Nation's policies. 

He is the supreme holder of the executive power, which he shares with the Prime Minister. 

The legislative power is represented by Parliament, comprising two chambers:



Justice is dispensed on behalf of the Gabonese people by the Constitutional Court, the Court of Cassation, the Council of State, the Court of Accounts, the Courts of Appeal, the Provincial Courts, the High Court and the other special courts of law. 

Justice is an authority that is independent of the legislative power and the executive power. 

The constituent elements of the judicial power are as follows:

  • The Constitutional Court;
  • The Court of Cassation is the highest authority for civil, commercial, social and criminal cases. It is divided into civil, commercial, social and criminal chambers;
  • The Council of State is the state's highest authority for administrative issues;
  • The Court of Accounts is responsible for controlling public finance.

In this role, it:

  • Checks that the financial laws are enforced and notifies Parliament and the government accordingly;
  • Verifies that the expenditures and revenues declared in public service accounting are in order and uses the said public service accounting to ensure that the credits, funds and securities managed by the state's departments or public companies are used correctly;
  • Checks the accounts and management of public companies and semi-public undertakings;
  • Audits the accounts of chartered accountants;
  • Certifies and audits instances of de facto management;
  • Penalizes any management faults committed against the state, local authorities and organisations under its control.

The High Court of Justiciary is a non-permanent jurisdiction of exception